Giving birth to a child is a privilege that women are blessed with, and the period of pregnancy is a particularly special one for the mother to be. However, it is not the only time when there is a possibility of a problem arising for the woman, especially gynecological. In fact, the irony is that most gynecological problems occur either before or after pregnancy.

A woman’s reproductive ability can be divided into several stages-

  • Pre-puberty
  • Reproductive age
  • Post Menopause

Almost all problems in all these stages are symptomized by abnormal bleeding and/or a discharge through the vagina, other than the menstrual cycle.

Possible or Common Gynecology Problems and Causes

Depending on the stage the woman is in, the causes of the problem could vary-

In Pre-pubescent Women

  • Physical injury, such as during contact sports
  • Severe irritation
  • Blood clotting problems
  • Sexual abuse
  • Early commencement of periods

Women of reproductive age

  • Hormonal imbalances
  • Ectopic pregnancy
  • Placenta Previa (the placenta lies near the cervix)
  • Fibroids in the uterus
  • Cysts and tumors- These may be cancer tumors in rare cases.
  • Endometriosis
  • IUDs

Post Menopausal Women

  • Side effects of hormone replacement
  • Cancerous tumors
  • Non-cancerous tumors or cysts
  • Drying of vagina
  • Prolapse of pelvic organs


Problems related to the reproductive system can be diagnosed by using one or more of the following techniques

  • Hysteroscopy – Using a laparoscope to view the inner lining of the uterus.
  • Biopsies – Taking samples of tissue from the inner lining of the uterus and testing for any abnormalities in the cells.
  • Imaging techniques – CT scans, MRI scans or X-rays may be used to view the organs and their working.


The treatment of a gynecological problem depends on the problem diagnosed, its severity, the age of the woman and her overall physical health.


It is the surgical removal of the uterus, and is generally preferred as an ultimate treatment for cancers or major problems.|

Dr.Niraj Mahajan ClinicA hysterectomy renders a woman incapable to bear a child, hence it is generally not performed on younger women.


A laparoscope is a long, thin, flexible tube with a camera at its end, used to view the inner organs of the body.

A laparoscope may also be used along with micro instruments to perform minimally invasive surgeries.

It is the most commonly used technique to solve gynecological problems, as the recovery period is also less.

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    About Me

    I am a Consultant Gynaecologist at the Jessop Wing, Sheffield Teaching Hospitals.My main areas of interest are Urogynaecology (prolapse of the womb, bowel, bladder and urinary incontinence) and General Gynaecology (period problems). Read More


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